any sheet of material used to cover a flat or lowpitched roof is usually known as a membrane and the primary purpose of these membranes is to waterproof the roof area. materials that cover flat roofs typically allow the water to run off from a slight inclination or camber into a gutter system.
bogwood, also known as abonos and morta, especially amongst pipe smokers, is a material from trees that have been buried in peat bogs and preserved from decay by the acidic and anaerobic bog conditions, sometimes for hundreds or even thousands of years. the wood is usually stained brown by tannins dissolved in.
expensive, generally waterproof, and does not contain formaldehyde, notoriously more difficult to release from platens and engineered wood presses. a more inclusive term is structural composites . for example, fiber cement siding is made of cement and wood fiber, while cement board is a lowdensity cement panel, often with added resin, faced with fiberglass mesh .
enamel paint is also used on wood to make it resistant to the elements via the waterproofing and rotproofing properties of enamel. generally, treated surfaces last much longer and are much more resistant to wear than untreated surfaces. model building xtracolor and humbrol are mainstream uk brands. colourcoats model paint is a high quality .
woodworking was essential to the romans. it provided, sometimes the only, material for buildings, transportation, tools, and household items. wood also provided pipes, dye, waterproofing materials, and energy for heat.: 1 although most examples of roman woodworking have been lost,: 2 the literary record preserved much of the contemporary knowledge.
papiermch is a composite material consisting of paper pieces or pulp, sometimes reinforced with textiles, bound with an adhesive, such as glue, starch, or wallpaper paste. the substance has been used since 200 b.c china. today papiermch sculptures are used as an economic building material for a variety of traditional and ceremonial activities, as well as in arts and crafts.
a fire resistant material is one that is designed to resist burning and withstand heat, however, fireretardant materials are designed to burn slowly. an example of a fireresistant material is one which is used in bunker gear worn by firefighters to protect them from the flames of a burning building.
tar was used as seal for roofing shingles and tar paper and to seal the hulls of ships and boats. for millennia, wood tar was used to waterproof sails and boats, but today, sails made from inherently waterproof synthetic substances have reduced the demand for tar. wood tar is still used to seal traditional wooden boats and the roofs of historic, shingleroofed churches, as well as painting .
bamboo is sometimes used to craft the limbs of the longbow and recurve bow used in traditional archery, and to make superior weapons for bowhunting and target archery. the first gunpowderbased weapons, such as the fire lance, were made of bamboo. bamboo was apparently used in east and south asia as a means of torture. musical instruments
highly workable wood is easier to manipulate into desired forms. if the wood grain is strht and even, it will be much easier to create strong and durable glued joints. additionally, it will help protect the wood from splitting when nailed or screwed.
firesafe polymers are polymers that are resistant to degradation at high temperatures. there is need for fireresistant polymers in the construction of small, enclosed spaces such as skyscrapers, boats, and airplane cabins. in these tight spaces, ability to escape in the event of a fire is compromised, increasing fire risk. in fact, some studies report that about 20 of victims of airplane crashes are killed not by the crash itself but by ensuing fires. firesafe polymers also find application
thatching is the craft of building a roof with dry vegetation such as st, water reed, sedge cladium mariscus , rushes, heather, or palm branches, layering the vegetation so as to shed water away from the inner roof. since the bulk of the vegetation stays dry and is densely packedtrapping airthatching also functions as insulation.